Institute for Social and Political Psychology of National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Introduction. Ukraine’s coming into the Europianean Educational World determines the educational content modernisation in the context of its correspondence for modern demands of a society and a personality. Domestic system of education is experiencing a hard period which is conditioned by the socio-economic development of the country as well as social transformations. The Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine has commented the relevant situation in the country as “a chance for changes for the educational system”, which is able to be seen as ”.contribution in Ukrainian education and general development of the country”.
In the period of transformation the responsibility of every society member for work results, the process of social changes increases and the importance of teachers’ responsibility increases significantly because school provides the foundation for future social life of any country. In such a situation demands for not only qualities of pedagogical influence and implementing innovations are increasing but also there are big demands for a personality of a teacher who is mostly responsible for development of a pupil’s personality. Such an approach can be ensured only by mature and responsible attitude of participants implementing educational innovations. In the process of implementing new innovations new demands are appearing in front of a teacher; except this, a high level of social tension in the period of social transformation in our country – all these factors add tension and can lead to experience of crisis situations and emotional states of a teacher, overcoming of which often causes demonstration of aggression. In such conditions the problem of understanding and analize of particularity of emotional state of teachers is actualized as a demonstration of personality maturity.
Purpose. In accordance with the mentioned above, the purpose of our research is to reveal features of aggression of pedagogical workers in the period of implementing educational innovations as emotional characteristics of personality maturity.
An optimisational process of a personality maturity formation in conditions of social transformation is a humanistic value of education. It is recognized in admitting unique and unrepeated value of everyone, his or her role in the society’s development, strengthening the responsibility of a personality for building his/her life way and professional path. In scientific discussions emotional characteristic of personality maturity is seen through specified control of own emotional state and mature managing of own behaviour. Peculiarities of self-control, self-evaluation, an ability to suppress very strong and non-adaptive emotional reactions (V. Tatenko, 2014; E. Gejko 2016; S. Baranova, 2017).
The pedagogical profession contains a potential possibility of a higher emotional reaction and in many cases can lead to vicariousness and deformation of individual maturity and strengthen of a negative tendency in the structure of a teacher’s personality. Except damage which is made by such an activity to the child’s psyche, deconstructive emotional demonstrations of teacher’s aggression are also able to influence teacher’s own health. Such consequences as psychosomatic illnesses, professional burnout appear and they lead to a decrease in the effectiveness of pedagogical activities.
Methodology. 250 pedagogues in the age between 22 and 64 from Ukrainian secondary schools took part in the research of pecularities of appearing aggression in the pedagogical activity.
Methods of the research. Such methodologies which reveal qualities of a personality which are connected with a personality maturity and different emotional demonstrations have been used in the research, as test-questionnaire of personality maturity of Yu. Z. Gilbuha, Cattell test, 16 PF (form A), method of diagnostics of J. Rotter’s subjective control (adapted by E. F. Bazhina, S. A. Golinkina, A. M. Etkinda), self-assessment methodology (S. A. Budassi), the questionnaire "Self-assessment of forms of aggressive behaviour" (modified version of the method A. Bassa – A. Darki), professional burnout questionnaire for pedagogical staff (adapted by N. E. Vodopianov).
Results. The analyse of results is the identification and substance of pecularities of emotional characteristic of pedagogue’s personality maturity which is revealed in the connection between pedagogue’s aggression and his/her individual psychological features which determine its demonstration in professional activity. In accordance with Bassa-Darki questionnaire the general profile of teachers’ aggression form is characterized by low and average values for all scales. Such forms of aggression as feelings of guilty and irritation have been the most significant, the low indexes have been in scales of physical aggression, non-direct aggression, suspicion and verbal aggression.
The further analyse has revealed signs of teachers’ aggression which depends on gender differences and work experience. The research has revealed that male pedagogues tend to physical aggression more that female pedagogues. According to the work experience, teachers with the experience between 11-25 years of work are more aggressive (it’s based on all scales of the research) which can be explained, from our point of view, by a development of a professional deformation.
The sign of a self-assessment depends on a type of teacher’s aggression. Non-aggressive pedagogues have an adequate self-assessment. The low self-assessment belongs to other types of teachers. So, the earlier determined regularity is confirmed, that a low self-assessment is not a positive factor in their professional activity. Moreover, we can stipulate, that the low self-assessment influences on the development of interaction with students, colleagues, and also influences the quality of professional duty.
Data, which has been obtained via the methodology of identifying the syndrome of “professional burnout”, shows that the big quantity of teachers demonstrate signs of formed syndrome of “professional burnout”. Except this, the dependence between the emotional exhaust, depersonalization and high sense of guilty has been revealed.
Conclusion. On the base of fulfilled researches we are able to reach the following conclusions:
1. Teacher’s realizing of the importance of the situation of social transformation and the potential of educational innovations, the uniqueness of the moment “here and now” and a connection with all global processes which are going on in the world and also in Ukraine, has the fundamental value as from the ethical quality of a teacher as a search for ways of his/her development.
2. It has been identified that the strategy of teacher’s professional behaviour is tightly connected with the teacher’s emotional state. Negative emotions, which the teacher is experiencing, often reflect his/her attitude to his/her professional activity. Correlation relations between the demonstration of aggression and the pedagogical experience of teachers have been revealed. Different stages of professional development are characterized by different psychological pecularities of aggression which have a qualitative and quantitative originality at the stage of adaptation, the first and the second stage of professional development and professional excellence of a teacher.
3. In accordance with the research results, it has been revealed that in comparison with other forms of teachers’ aggression the feeling of irritation and the sense of guilty appear more often. Pedagogues in general are characterized by a high and middle emotional level of exhaust, depersonalization and reduction of individual achievements, the low level of self-assessment, internal subjective control and a high level of personality maturity. In the gender aspect, as personality maturity in general as its individual components of a female teacher reduce a possible appearing of all forms and indicators of aggression. The biggest demonstration of destruction reveals a connection with verbal aggression. Male teachers have lower enough level of connection between personality maturity and aggression, although it is also negative. The connection between an indicator of achievements of personality maturity and a low level of an indicator of suspicion has been revealed among male teachers.
The prospect of further research is to development modern prevention programmes and form skills of mature control of own emotional state and management own behaviour taking into account pecularities of pedagogical activity and conditions of social transformation of the present.
Keywords: personality maturity, aggression, gender divergences, pedagogical activity, emotional exhaust.
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